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A-Level心理学-文化偏见Cultural Bias

2018-03-10 16:5052Alevel学习网

  Revision: Cultural Bias

  Types of Cultural Bias

  Ethnocentrism

  The use of our own ethnic/cultural group as the basis for judgment about other groups.

  The view that our own beliefs are normal/superior to others, which are strange.

  Eurocentrism

  Psychologists place emphasis on European theories/ideas at the expense of those of other cultures.

  Assumes that Western concepts are different/superior to those of others.

  Western research is applied to other cultures, and is seen as a universal view of human behavior.

  Responses to Cultural Bias

  Indigenous Psychologies

  Indigenous means native.

  Most indigenous research is done in Asia, and is almost absent in Africa. South Africa is largely Western and individualist, and so fails to reflect the country's more collectivist indigenous culture. This is not surprising, as 90% of the psychologists, but only 13% of the population are white.

  Afrocentrism

  The proposition that all blacks have their roots in Africa, and so psychological theories must be African centered and express African views.

  Disputes the view that European values are universally appropriate descriptions of human behavior which apply equally to Europeans, and to non-Europeans.

  Values and culture of Europeans at worst de-values non-European peoples, and are irrelevant to the life and culture of Africans.

  Economic Theories of Relationships

  Moghaddam (1998) - Economic theories of relationships (social exchange theory and equity theory) apply only to Western relationships.

  The theories reflect characteristics of individualist societies concerned with their own success, and so, with profit and loss in relationships.

  Collectivist societies are more concerned with the success of the group, so 'profit and loss' and 'equity' in personal relationships are less important.

  Evaluation

  Takano and Osaka (1999) - reviewed 15 studies comparing US and Japan in terms of individualism and collectivism. 14 out of 15 = not support the common view. Result of fundamental attribution error - tendency to overestimate the influence of personal characteristics on behavior/underestimate situational factors when interpreting collectivist behavior of the Japanese.

  Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Understanding

  Seen as a universal description of human behavior. It is argued that all members of all cultures go through the 6 stages in the same order.

 

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