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A-Level心理学-变态行为Abnormal Behavior

2018-03-10 16:47http://www.52alevel.com52Alevel学习网

  Revision: Abnormal Behavior

  Abnormal behavior - Behavior that is maladaptive and harmful

  Behaviorist - Medical Model/Disease Model - Forerunner of the biological approach, abnormality is a disease or illness precipitated by internal physical causes.

  Interactionist - Abnormal behavior is influence by biological factors (brain processes), psychological factors (emotional turmoil), and by social factors (inadequate relationships).

  Woman are diagnosed more then males because

  1.Woman more likely to behave in ways that others label as mental disorders.

  2.Woman is taught to express their emotions, while men are trained to control them.

  3.Woman have unequal social positions and greater discrimination, more likely to experience trauma-inducing circumstances

  4.Woman often placed in 'double-blind' situations in society. Woman labeled as mentally disordered for either over conforming or under conforming to feminine gender role stereotypes.

  Anxiety Disorders - Psychological disorders that include the following main features: motor tension(jumpiness, trembling, inability to relax); hyperactivity (dizziness; a racing heart, perspiration) andapprehensive expectorations and thoughts.

  Types of anxiety disorder:

  1.Generalized Anxiety Disorder - Persistent anxiety for at least a month; the individual with a generalize anxiety disorder is unable to specify the reasons for anxiety.

  2.Panic Disorder - Reoccurring sudden onset of intense apprehension or terror. Feeling of impending doom, may not feel anxious all of the time. Anxiety attack strikes without warning and produces severe palpitations, extreme shortness of breath, chest pains, trembling, sweating, dizziness, and feeling of helplessness. Victims seize by fear that they will die, go crazy or do something they cannot control.

  3.Phobic Disorders (Phobias) - Individual has irrational, overwhelming, persistent fear of a particular object or situation. Can pinpoint the cause of nervous feelings.

  ……

  Causes

  1.Genetics — high change of getting if it identical twin has it...

  2.Neurobiological — imbalances in brain chemistry... defects in brain metabolism, malfunction dopamine system, distorted cerebral blood flow...

  3.Environment Factor — Diathesis-stress view — combo of enviro & biogenetic disposition

  Personality Disorders — Personality traits become inflexible and thus maladaptive

  1.Schizotypal Personality Disorder — Odd/eccentric cluster...appear to be in contact with reality, but many aspects of their behavior are distasteful...leads others to retreat or withdraw from them...

  2.Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder — Anxious/fearful cluster of personality disorders...anxious adjustment is primary feature...

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