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A-Level心理学-年轻人饮酒The Young's Alcohol Consumpt

2018-03-10 16:4752Alevel学习网

  Revision: Alcohol Consumption amongst Young People

  Describe how two approaches might try to explain the subject presented in the stimulus material

  One approach would be the behaviorist approach, which claims that all behaviors are accumulated through learning. Under this approach is the conditioning theory which consists of two parts, the first being classical conditioning which claims behavior is learnt through association. Regular alcohol consumption would therefore be carried out, as people would associate something pleasant with alcohol, therefore they would continue to drink. Such associations could be made with laughter and fun, even though this could not be directly due to alcohol, maybe the atmosphere in which alcohol is consumed. Other associations could be feeling more confident and for young people feeling more grown-up. The other section to the conditioning theory is operant conditioning, which explains behavior in terms of reinforcement. For example, if a young person has a drink, and therefore is more socially accepted by his/her peer group, then this positively reinforces the young person to drink alcohol again. Another positive reinforce could be having a good time when consuming alcohol, and so wanting to have a good time again, one would drink alcohol. However, these reinforces could also be negative, as when a person drinks alcohol, they tend to forget other worries, and therefore they are reinforced to drink alcohol to forget problems.

  A similar yet different approach is neo-behaviorism, which is associated with the social learning theory. This attempts to explain all behaviors in terms of observation and imitation. Therefore a person learns to behave in certain according to the actions of the people which surround them. For example, if a young person has parents who drink alcohol regularly, the young person is influenced that drinking alcohol in such volume is fine. This also is similar with peer groups, as people tend to be influenced by people of a similar age and sex. People are also influenced by others of whom they admired and respect, therefore according to this approach, the media would play an important role. For example if a young person's favorite actor was involved in an advertising campaign for an alcohol company or was seen consuming alcohol this could encourage the young person to do the same. This can be in terms of vicarious reinforces where you see others being rewarded for certain behavior, seeing someone else having a good time and drinking, would reinforce you to drink.

  Assess one of these explanations of the subject presented in the stimulus material in terms of its strengths and weaknesses

  Under the behaviorist approach, its theory lends itself to scientific research as the behavior can be easily observed. The associations with alcohol consumption can be recorded easily for example. This approach also has useful implications for treatment as they simply aim to reverse the faulty learning. For example with if a young person was not able to control their alcohol consumption, aversion therapy would be recommended, as a nauseating drug would be placed in the alcohol, therefore the feeling of nausea would be



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