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A-Level历史-英国(1815-1841)Britain

2018-03-10作者:

  Revision: Britain (1815-1841)

  Prime Ministers

  William Pitt: 1783-1801, 1804-1806

  Henry Addington: 1801-04

  Lord Grenville: 1806-1807

  Duke of Portland: 1807-1809

  Spencer Perceval: 1809-1812

  Lord Liverpool: 1812-1827

  George Canning: 1827

  Viscount Goderich: 1827-28

  Duke of Wellington: 1828-1830

  Earl Grey: 1830-1834

  Lord Melbourne: 1834, 1835-1841

  Sir Robert Peel: 1834-1835, 1841-1846

  Chartists

  Thomas Attwood

  William Benbow

  George Binns

  John Cleave

  Thomas Cooper

  William Cuffay

  Thomas Duncombe

  Mary Fildes

  John Frost

  R. G. Gammage

  George Julian Harney

  Henry Hetherington

  Thomas Hughes

  George Holyoake

  Ernest Jones

  Anne Knight

  Charles Kingsley

  William Lovett

  Frederick Denison Maurice

  John Stuart Mill

  Richard Oastler

  James Bronterre O'Brien

  Feargus O'Connor

  Elizabeth Pease

  Francis Place

  Jane Smeal

  Samuel Smiles

  Joseph Rayner Stephens

  Henry Vincent

  Thomas Wakley

  1793: Catholic Emancipation

  In the 18th century attempts were made to obtain full political and civil liberties to British and Irish Roman Catholics. In Ireland, where the majority of the population were Catholics, the Relief Act of 1793 gave them the right to vote in elections, but not to sit in Parliament.

  In England the leading campaigners for Catholic emancipation were the Radical members of the House of Commons, Sir Francis Burdett and Joseph Hume.

  By the beginning of the 19th century, William Pitt, the leader of Tories, became converted to the idea of Catholic emancipation. Pitt and his Irish Secretary, Lord Castlereagh, promised the Irish Parliament that Catholics would have equality with Protestants when it agreed to the Act of Union in 1801. When King George III refused to accept the idea of religious equality, Pitt and Castlereagh resigned from office.

  In 1823 Daniel O'Connell founded the Catholic Association to campaign for the removal of discrimination against Catholics. In 1828 he was elected as M.P. for County Clare but as a Catholic he was not allowed to take his seat in the House of Commons. To avoid the risk of an uprising in Ireland, the British Parliament passed the Roman Catholic Relief Act in 1829, which granted Catholic emancipation and enabled O'Connell to take his seat.

  1811-1812: The Luddites

  In the early months of 1811 the first threatening letters from General Ned Ludd and the Army of Redressers, were sent to employers in Nottingham. Workers upset by wage reductions and the use of unapprenticed workmen began to break into factories at night to destroy the new machines that the employers were using. In a three-week period over two hundred stocking frames were destroyed. In March, 1811, several attacks were taking place every night and the Nottingham authorities had to enroll four hundred special constables to protect the factories. To help catch the culprits, the Prince Regent offered £50 to anyone "giving information on any person or persons wickedly breaking the frames".



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